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Release process

The kOps project is released on an as-needed basis. The process is as follows:

Release branches

We maintain a release-1.21 branch for kOps 1.21.X, release-1.22 for kOps 1.22.X, etc.

master is where development happens. We create new branches from master as we prepare for a new minor release. As we are preparing for a new Kubernetes release, we will try to advance the master branch to focus on the new functionality and cherry-pick back to the release branches only as needed.

Generally we don't encourage users to run older kOps versions, or older branches, because newer versions of kOps should remain compatible with older versions of Kubernetes.

Beta and stable releases (excepting the first beta of a new minor version) should be made from the release-1.X branch. Alpha releases may be made on either master or a release branch.

Creating new release branches

Typically, kOps alpha releases are created off the master branch and beta and stable releases are created off of release branches. The exception is the first beta release for a new minor version: it is where the release branch for the minor version branches off of master. In order to create the first beta release for a new minor version and a new release branch off of master, perform the following steps:

  1. Update the periodic E2E Prow jobs for the "next" kOps/Kubernetes minor version.
  2. Edit to add the new minor version to k8s_versions and kops_versions. Also update the list of minor versions in generate_versions(), generate_pipeline(), and generate_presubmits_e2e().
  3. Edit the testgrid config.yaml to add the new minor version to both lists in the file, prefixed with kops-k8s-.
  4. Remove the oldest minor version from each of those lists.
  5. Run the script.
  6. Create a new milestone in the GitHub repo.
  7. Update prow's milestone_applier config to update master to use the new milestone and add an entry for the new feature branch. Create this as a separate PR as it will require separate review.
  8. Create the .0-beta.1 release per the instructions in the following section. GitHub Actions will create the release branch when it tags the release.
  9. On the master branch, create a PR to update to the next minor version:
  10. Update OldestSupportedKubernetesVersion and OldestRecommendedKubernetesVersion in apply_cluster.go
  11. Add a row for the new minor version to
  12. Fix any tests broken by the now-unsupported versions.
  13. Create release notes for the next minor version. The release notes should mention the Kubernetes support removal and deprecation.
  14. On master, off of the branch point, create the first alpha release for the new minor release.

Creating releases

Send Pull Request to propose a release

See 1.22.0-beta.2 PR for an example.

Use the hack/set-version script to update versions, using the new version as the argument. Then update the golden tests.

hack/set-version 1.22.0

On macOS, some cleanup might be needed:

find . -name "*.bak" -delete

Commit the changes (without pushing yet):

VERSION=$(tools/ | grep VERSION | awk '{print $2}')
git checkout -b release_${VERSION}
git add . && git commit -m "Release ${VERSION}"

This is the "release commit". Push and create a PR. For alpha and ".0-beta.1" releases, the base branch flag (-B) should be omitted.

gh pr create -f -l tide/merge-method-squash -B release-1.22

Wait for the PR to merge.

Reviewing the release commit PR

To review someone else's release commit, verify that:

  • A release at that point is desired. (For example, there are no unfixed blocking bugs.)
  • There is nothing in the commit besides version number updates and golden outputs.

The "verify-versions" CI task will ensure that the versions have been updated in all the expected places.

Wait for CI job to complete

After the PR merges, GitHub Actions will tag the release. The staging CI job should build from the tag (from the trusted prow cluster, using Google Cloud Build).

It (currently) takes about 30 minutes to run.

Propose promotion of artifacts

The following tools are prerequisites:

Currently, we send the image and non-image artifact promotion PRs separately.

Create container promotion PR:

cd ${GOPATH}/src/

git checkout main
git pull upstream main
git checkout -b kops_images_${VERSION}

echo "" >>
echo "# ${VERSION}" >>
kpromo cip run --snapshot --snapshot-tag ${VERSION} >>

git add -p
git commit -m "Promote kOps $VERSION images"

Verify, then send a PR:

gh pr create -f

Create binary promotion PR:

cd ${GOPATH}/src/

git checkout main
git pull upstream main
git checkout -b kops_artifacts_${VERSION}

rm -rf ./k8s-staging-kops/kops/releases
mkdir -p ./k8s-staging-kops/kops/releases/${VERSION}/
gsutil rsync -r  gs://k8s-staging-kops/kops/releases/${VERSION}/ ./k8s-staging-kops/kops/releases/${VERSION}/

kpromo manifest files --src k8s-staging-kops/kops/releases/ >> artifacts/manifests/k8s-staging-kops/${VERSION}.yaml

git add artifacts/manifests/k8s-staging-kops/${VERSION}.yaml
git commit -m "Promote kOps $VERSION binary artifacts"

Verify, then send a PR:

gh pr create -f

Upon approval and merge of the binary promotion PR, artifacts will be promoted to via postsubmit. The process is described in detail here.

Promote to GitHub (all releases)

The shipbot tool is from kopeio/shipbot.

Binaries to github (all releases):

cd ${GOPATH}/src/
git checkout v$VERSION
shipbot -tag v${VERSION} -config .shipbot.yaml -src ${GOPATH}/src/${VERSION}/

Smoke test the release

This step is only necessary for stable releases (as binary artifacts are not otherwise promoted to


mv kops ko
chmod +x ko

./ko version

Also run through a kops create cluster flow, ideally verifying that everything is pulling from the new locations.

Publish to GitHub

  • Download release
  • Validate it
  • Add notes by pressing the "Generate release notes" button
  • Publish it

Release to Homebrew

This step is only necessary for stable releases in the latest stable minor version.

  • Following the documentation we must release a compatible homebrew formulae with the release.
  • This should be done at the same time as the release, and we will iterate on how to improve timing of this.

Update conformance results with CNCF

This step is only necessary for a first stable minor release (a ".0").

Use the following instructions:

Update latest minor release in documentation

This step is only necessary for a first stable minor release (a ".0").

Create a PR that removes the "has not been released yet" header in the version's release notes.

This step is only necessary for a first beta minor release (a ".0-beta.1").

Create a PR that updates the following document:

  • Add a reference to the version's release notes in mkdocs.yml

Update the alpha channel and/or stable channel

Once we are satisfied the release is sound:

  • Bump the kOps recommended version in the alpha channel

Once we are satisfied the release is stable:

  • Bump the kOps recommended version in the stable channel